As a timely indicator of broad consumer spending patterns, it can be used to assess the immediate direction of an economy.
CPI is used as a measure of inflation, as it reports price changes in over categories.
The rubber boom ended abruptly, many people left its major cities, and Manaus fell into poverty. The rubber boom had made possible electrification of the city before it was installed on many European cities, but the end of the rubber boom made the generators too expensive to run.
The city was not able to generate electricity again for years. A massive prison riot occurred in January , having begun in Manaus and later spreading to two additional cities in Brazil,  thus unleashing security problems within the country. Vegetation[ edit ] Aerial view of the Amazon Rainforest , near Manaus The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world.
Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome , and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia. More than one-third of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest. The largest green areas are: Mindu Park, located in the center-south of the city, the district Park Bilhares Park, established in , located in the south-central region of Manaus, in the neighborhood of Plateau.
Area of the green hill of Aleixo, created in the s, located in the east of the city and one of the largest urban green areas. The Quapaw people elect a tribal council and the tribal chairman, who serves a two-year term. The governing body of the tribe is outlined in the governing resolutions of the tribe, which were voted upon and approved in to create a written form of government prior to the Quapaw Tribe operated on a hereditary chief system.
Membership in the tribe is based on lineal descent. They issue their own tribal vehicle tags and have their own housing authority. European-Americans leased lands for development that require remediation to remove toxic waste.
Language[ edit ] The traditional Quapaw language is part of the Dhegiha branch of the Siouan language family. There are few remaining native speakers, but Quapaw was well documented in fieldnotes and publications from many individuals, including George Izard in , Lewis F.
Siebert in , and by linguist Robert Rankin in the s. In the Quapaw participated in the first annual Dhegiha Gathering. The Osage language program hosted and organized the gathering, held at the Quapaw tribe's Downstream Casino. Language-learning techniques and other issues were discussed and taught in workshops at the conference among the five cognate tribes. These include Indian dice games, traditional singing, and classes in traditional arts, such as finger weaving, shawl making, and flute making.
In addition, Quapaw language classes are held there. This dance started shortly after the American Civil War ,  was the th anniversary of this dance. Other activities take place such as Indian football, handgame , traditional footraces, traditional dinners, turkey dance , and other dances such as Quapaw Dance, and dances from other area tribes.
This weekend is also when the tribe convenes the annual general council meeting, during which important decisions regarding the policies and resolutions of the Quapaw tribe are voted upon by tribal members over the age of eighteen. History[ edit ] The Quapaw tribe known as Ugahxpa in their own language are descended from a historical group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the lower Ohio River valley area.
The modern descendants of this group also include the Omaha , Ponca , Osage and Kaw. Scholars are divided in whether they think the Quapaw and other related groups left before or after the Beaver Wars of the 17th century, in which the more powerful Five Nations of the Iroquois drove out other tribes from the Ohio Valley and retained the area for hunting grounds.
The timing of the Quapaw migration into their ancestral territory in the historical period has been the subject of considerable debate by scholars of various fields. It is referred to as the "Quapaw Paradox" by academics. Many professional archaeologists have introduced numerous migration scenarios and time frames, but none has conclusive evidence.
As French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet met the Illinois before they did the Quapaw, they adopted this exonym for the more westerly people. English-speaking settlers who arrived later in the region adopted the name used by the French. During years of colonial rule of New France , many of the French fur traders and voyageurs had an amicable relationship with the Quapaw, as with many other trading tribes.
While the area was ruled by the Spanish from —, following French defeat in the Seven Years' War , they did not have as many colonists in the area. English speakers tried to adapt French names to English phonetics: Chemin Couvert French for "covered way or road" was gradually converted to "Smackover" by Anglo-Americans. They used this name for a local creek. Numerous spelling variations have been recorded in accounts of tribal names, reflecting both loose spelling traditions, and the effects of transliteration of names into the variety of European languages used in the area.
Some sources listed Ouachita as a Choctaw word, whereas others list it as a Quapaw word. Have a very pleasant and relaxing Summer and prepare yourself for a very busy Fall!! A full-time position as professor of family therapy and systemic practice will become available on 1 August in the Faculty of Social Studies.
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